Merry Christmas!

Merry Christmas to all the other HUFFORD descendants!

Today I have changed the privacy settings on a genealogical database that I’ve been building for over 40 years. It is now set to “public.” Anyone with access to ancestry[dot]com will be able to see whatever is in the database for any person who has died. (Most public libraries in the USA have free access to ancestry[dot]com.)

The database includes all descendants of our immigrant ancestor Christian Hufford that I have been able to find.  Attached to each person in the database are various records used to puzzle thru the giant family-tree puzzle. Many have photos. Many have links to findagrave pages that have even more information. Many show DNA-verified lines; if a person’s last name is in all capital letters, it means that line has been proven with autosomal DNA (in addition to documentary genealogical research).

The database is the result of a wide variety of proofs: autosomal DNA, Y-DNA, death records, birth records, marriage records, divorce records, church records, government vital records, wills, estate settlements, probate records, published obituaries, funeral home records, military records, cemetery records, cemetery digs, gravestones, Social Security records, old photographs, old Bible records, diaries, old letters, city directories, school yearbooks, records from archives in other countries, census records, local histories, land transfer records, tax records, immigration and naturalization records, ships’ passenger lists, bastardy bonds, published genealogies, and more. Some of the records are from Canada, and some are from European countries. For some records, I had to learn bit of other languages. For some records, I traveled a few hundred miles to see original records.

The database has incorporated the work of some extraordinary HUFFORD genealogists. Among them are Abraham Hufford (1836-1920), Franklin Pierce Hoffert (1858-1931), Donald Robert Singleton (1918-1995), Eunice Elmina Newbold (Mrs. Clark, 1918-2016), Shirley Ann Hufford (Mrs. Hegeman, 1929-2013), James William “Jim” Hufferd (1935-2018), Florence Lucille Grove (Mrs. Woods, 1936-1991), Barry Wood, and Hoby Hooker.

As with all published genealogies, this is based on the best available information. Updates will continue as long as my life allows.

This has been a labor of love and obsession for the last 40 years of my life. Today, I put it in public as a gift.

To begin with our immigrant ancestor Christian in the database, go here:
www.ancestry.com/family-tree/person/tree/32519399/person/18278138937/facts
For the overall database, go here:
www.ancestry.com/family-tree/tree/32519399/

Merry Christmas!

DNA test to see if you’re a HUFFORD

Autosomal DNA has become something of a “drug” for me, and my favorite DNA company these days is ancestry[dot]com.

For those who believe they are HUFFORD descendants, an autosomal DNA test at ancestry[dot]com  can be a quick way to confirm what you believe, or to have you scratch your head and do some rethinking.

When I search my DNA matches at ancestry to find others who have a HUFFORD in their trees, 72 matches pop. Of those 72, I know how all but six fit as descendants of Christian HOFFART b. 1716. Each of the six unknowns has a different story, and it may be that not all descend from Christian. There are other HUFFORD lines in the USA, and my ancestral connection with some may be other than HUFFORD; my DNA shares with the unknowns are quite small.

But a neat thing about ancestry’s service (if you are a subscriber in addition to just a DNA test taker) is the service they call “ThruLines.” Ancestry’s computer brain compares my DNA to my DNA matches. Then, it looks for matches in trees. Not only does the computer brain look for matches in the public trees displayed by my matches, the computer brain also looks for matches found using private trees. If a match is found, the computer brain will offer up what it finds. For me, the computer brain found 55 DNA matches such that the computer brain was willing to ID us as, for example, 2nd cousins once-removed, or 4th cousins twice-removed, and so forth.

Sometimes ThruLines will show names for the entire line. Sometimes ThruLines will show only male or female. Usually, even when no names are shown, I know and can figure out HUFFORD lines of descent well enough to determine the line and verify it with records.

If you believe that you are a HUFFORD descendant, an autosomal DNA test with ancestry[dot]com can quickly give you verification. If you have questions, give me a shout, and I’ll help as I’m able.

Hufford Y-DNA

R-L44 and R-L48

Those are the two paternal haplogroups that I’ve seen.

Every man got his paternal haplogroup (his Y-haplogroup) from his father, who got it from his father, who got it from his father, who got it from his father, and so on. Over many generations, there can be small, modest mutations/variations, but all straight-line male descendants of a man are going to have the same Y-haplogroup — or something pretty darned close to the same.

Folks who do autosomal DNA testing with the company 23andMe get a bonus: They learn their paternal and maternal haplogroups. Whoopie! Only a few days ago did I realize that fact means there is more data to mine. 🙂 I found Y-DNA information for three men who are known paper-trail descendants of Casper Hoffert (1762-1825), son of the immigrant Christian (1716-1788):
One descends from Andrew Hufford (1827-1881), grandson of Casper: R-L44
One descends from Emanual Hufford (1831-1913), grandson of Casper: R-L48
One descends from Henry Hufford (1836-1908), grandson of Casper: R-L48

A fourth man carries the HUFFORD surname and shares plenty of autosomal DNA with those three men and with other identified Hufford descendants; however, I do not know who he is, and he does not respond to my queries. But the fact that he shares autosomal DNA with known Hufford descendants and carries the Hufford surname makes clear that he’s a Hufford descendant. His Y-haplogroup: R-L44

Because of that R-L44 Y-haplogroup, three days ago I sent an email to a man with a last name very different from HUFFORD: “I don’t know who your biologicial father is, but I can tell that your biological paternal grandfather was Clarence Hufford.”

The man was carrying that Hufford Y-DNA, and he shared enough autosomal DNA with two known grandchildren of Clarence Hufford that it was clear he was their first-cousin. That meant that Clarence had to be his grandfather also, and that he had to be the son of one of Clarence’s sons. Within 12 hours, the man had enough information to know which of those sons of Clarence was his biological father. Because there are living people involved, I’ll share no more, other than to say that the newly found Hufford descendant is one to be proud of: Served as a U.S. Marine, and has been a fireman for 25 years. He descends from Casper’s son Michael William Hufford, Sr. (1804-1875).

Thus, we have four known descendants of Casper. Two are R-L44; two are R-L48. And we have another obvious Hufford descendant who is R-L44, but I do not know his descent.

If any straight-line male Hufford descendant has done a Y-DNA test, I’d love to hear from you.

My knowledge of Y-DNA haplogroups is limited. There is information of interest here:
2019 Haplogroup R Tree
That is found at ISOGG’s page on the Y-DNA haplogroup treeic Genealogy. (ISOGG is International Society of Genetic Genealogy.)

This graphic is a screen shot from that page, showing the differences between R-L44 and R-L48:
r-l44_r-l48

DNA proof of Hufford descendant born into slavery

IN PROGRESS!

The 1909 HUFFORD FAMILY HISTORY tracks descendants of Christian HOFFART who was born in 1716 in (or very near) Schwaigern, Germany. He arrived in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on September 15, 1729, with his parents – Hans Jorick Hoffart and Anna Margaretha Most – and with his younger sister Anna Margaretha Hoffart. The 1909 book briefly mentions his parents and sister on page 8, but it badly garbles the information, even incorrectly stating the German city of origin.

Additionally, the book makes no mention of Christian’s older sister, Anna Christina Hoffart, who did not travel with her parents and siblings in 1729 because she was newly married and pregnant with her first child.  Anna Christina had married Johann Casper CREAGER on August 17, 1728, in the Lutheran church in Schwaigern, Germany. When her family sailed in 1729, Anna Christina was pregnant. Her child was born September 5, 1729, in Schwaigern, ten days before her parents arrived in Philadelphia. Anna Christina, her husband, and their infant son arrived in Philadelphia in 1730.

Already I had tracked some descendants of Christian’s sister Anna Christina because Christian’s daughter Christina HOFFART (b. 1749) married Anna Christina’s son Adam CREAGER (b. 1737) – a marriage of first cousins.

In about 2010 while tracking descendants of Christian’s son Daniel (b. abt 1755), I bumped into a descendant of Christian’s sister Anna Christina:  Susan S. HUFFORD was born in about 1816 in Kentucky; she was the daughter of David Hufford (1781-1831), who was the son of Daniel Hoffart (Christian’s son). Sometime before 1850, Susan married her 3rd-cousin Enoch LINK. Susan was the great-granddaughter of Christian Hoffart and his 1st wife (Elizabeth Keim); Enoch was the great-grandson of Anna Christina Hoffart — Christian’s sister. Both Susan and her husband Enoch were the two-greats grandchildren of that German couple who had arrived in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1729 — Hans Jorick Hoffart and Anna Margaretha Most. A 3rd-cousin marriage is of no surprise, and my interest at that point was tracking Susan, since she was the Christian Hoffart descendant.

Susan shows on the 1850 census of Scott Co., KY, as “Susan Link.” Her age as listed likely is not correct:  29. She is with her husband Enoch, her dead grandfather’s widow (Barbara), a half-uncle (Eli), a spinster half-aunt (Mary), and a widowed half-aunt (Delila). Her husband was farming, and value of his real estate was $3,000; in today’s money, that would be over $95,000. The $3,000 value of real estate was about average for the land-owning farmers in that time and place. In 1850, the population of Scott County was just under 15,000. Size of the county: 285 square miles, meaning over 180,000 acres.

 

Christian’s son Daniel

Christian’s son Daniel (b. abt 1755) got short shrift in the book. Daniel had a total of 15 children by two wives. However, the book has traces of only two of Daniel’s children: Information about Daniel’s son William David is at page 258 of the 1909 HUFFORD FAMILY HISTORY. Information about Daniel’s grandson Joel (son of Daniel’s son David) is at page 252 of the book.

Thanks to Jim Hufferd (descendant of Christian’s son Daniel) and to Barry Wood (descendant Christian’s son Christian II), we have been able to piece together the basics of the life of Christian’s son Daniel. We have no photograph of Daniel, but we have his signature:
daniel_signature

Daniel was born in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania in about 1755. When Daniel was about five years old, his father moved the family to Frederick County, Maryland. On August 23, 1779, Daniel married Elizabeth CASSELL in Frederick County, MD. Daniel was about 24; his wife likely was a year or two younger.

Daniel and Elizabeth spent the early years of their marriage in Maryland, with Daniel developing a trade. Land transfers and purchases found in the Maryland Archives show that Daniel was involved in leatherwork. A transaction from 1779 lists him as a “cordwainer,” someone who makes shoes from cordovan leather.

Daniel’s first three children – David, Joseph, and Daniel Jr. — were born in Maryland; the third was baptized at the Pipe Creek Brethren Church, in an area that is in Carroll County, MD, in modern times.

Daniel was in Harrison County, Kentucky, by 1789 when his fourth child (John) was born. He and his wife Elizabeth lived near Berry, KY, on Raven Creek, and had four more children: Rachel, Deborah, Jacob, and William David. (Yes, he had a son “David” and also a son “William David.”)

Sometime after January 25, 1800, and before May 4, 1801, Elizabeth died, leaving Daniel with four children under ten years old.

On May 27, 1801, in Bourbon County, KY, Daniel married Barbara DAVID, daughter of William Henry DAVID and Mary Ann SIMMONS. Daniel was about 46 years old; Barbara was about 26. Barbara’s father was 15 years older than Daniel, and her father and Daniel were friends. (Barbara was named in her father’s will as “Barbary HUFFORD.” That will was recorded October 13, 1819, in Will Book F, Page 313; Bourbon Co., KY.)

Daniel and Barbara had seven children, born over a span of about 14 years: Daniel, Susannah, Catharine, Benjamin, Mary Ann, Delila, and Eli.

Daniel died sometime in 1817, and on January 8, 1818, his property was sold at an estate sale. When Daniel died, he had 12 children living: from his first marriage, David, John, Rachel, Deborah, Jacob, and William David; from his second marriage, Daniel, Susannah, Benjamin, Mary Ann, Deliah, and Eli. His son Joseph (from his first marriage) had died before February 1813, leaving one son.

Researching Daniel’s descendants provided a shock for me: I descend from Christian’s son Casper, and Casper and his brood were heavily into the German Baptist Brethren Church. Like Mennonites and Quakers, Brethren are Anabaptists and pacifists. Also like Mennonites and Quakers, the Brethren Church strongly opposed slavery. Brethren were barred from holding people as slaves. In Maryland, African Americans joined the church, and in 1835 the church affirmed that membership should be the same for people regardless of the color of their skin.

What is below is from the Church of the Brethren web site. It explains the Brethren response to slavery:

What did the Dunkers believe concerning slavery, at the official denominational level? Since the Dunkers or Brethren had migrated from Pennsylvania into a few southern States (Maryland, Virginia) with significant slave populations, the issue of slavery would inevitably confront them denominationally at their Annual Conference. The earliest record of an official mention was in their Annual Conference minutes for 1797, held at Blackwater, Virginia: “It was considered good, and also concluded unanimously, that no brother or sister should have negroes as slaves; and in case a brother or sister had such he or she was to set them free.” This had the effect of barring members from Communion and even disfellowshipping those who persisted in retaining slaves. Again the issue was similarly reflected in the minutes of the 1813 Conference held at Coventry, Pennsylvania.

But how did the Dunkers feel about having slaves or negroes in full membership status? The first mention is found in the 1835 Conference minutes from Cumberland County, Pennsylvania: “It is considered, that inasmuch as the gospel is to be preached to all nations and races, and if they come as repentant sinners, believing in the gospel of Jesus Christ, and apply for baptism, we could not confidently refuse them.

Should members “hire” slaves from slaveholders, thus evading any ruling concerning ownership while still enjoying the benefits of their labor? It was a very common practice in slave States for people to hire slaves from their masters under a contractual agreement: so many slaves, for so much work, for such a period of time. Questions regarding slavery or related matters repeatedly came to the Dunker or Brethren Annual Conference for consideration, but one of the more definitive pronouncements is found in the minutes of the 1855 Conference held at Linville Creek, Virginia: “We, the Brethren of Augusta, Upper and Lower Rockingham, Shenandoah, and Hardy counties having in general council meeting assembled at the church on Linville Creek; and having under consideration the following questions concerning those Brethren holding slaves at this time and who have not complied with the requisition of Annual Meeting of 1854, conclude: That they make speedy preparation to liberate them either by emancipation or by will, that this evil may be banished from among us, as we look upon slavery as dangerous to be tolerated in the church; it is tending to create disunion in the Brotherhood, and is a great injury to the cause of Christ and the progress of the church. So unitedly we exhort our brethren humbly, yet earnestly and lovingly, to clear themselves of slavery, and that they may not fail and come short of the glory of God, at the great and notable day of the Lord. Furthermore, concerning Brethren who hire a slave or slaves, and paying wages to their owners, we do not approve of it. The same is attended with evil which is combined with slavery. It is taking hold of the same evil which we cannot encourage, and should be banished and put from among us, and cannot be tolerated in the church.

Long before cannons sounded in Charleston harbor, the Dunkers repeatedly gave clear and unambiguous official statements regarding their beliefs over the issue of slavery. It was an “evil” that could not be “tolerated in the church” because the “gospel of Jesus Christ was to be preached in all nations to all races.”

That’s what I knew about my Huffords, and I had assumed that all of Casper’s siblings were Brethren and had lived similar lives. I was wrong. While working on the story of Christian’s son Daniel, I learned that some of Daniel’s descendants held slaves:

  • The 1850 Slave Schedule shows Daniel’s widow Barbara in Scott Co., KY, with three slaves: a 40-year-old man, a 14-year-old girl, and a 10-year-old boy. All slaves described as black.
  • The 1850 Slave Schedule of Woodford Co., KY, shows the widow of Daniel’s grandson Joseph with two slaves: a 58-year-old man and a 14-year-old girl; both described as black.
  • The 1850 Slave Schedule of Harrison Co., KY, shows Daniel’s son John with five slaves: a 50-year-old woman, a 20-year-old man, a 15-year-old girl, a 14-year-old girl, and an 11-year-old boy; all described as black.
  • The 1860 Slave Schedule of Pike Co., Missouri, shows Daniel’s grandson James with 11 slaves: a 52-year-old woman, a 38-year-old man, a 36-year-old man, a 22-year-old man, a 22-year-old woman, a 19-year-old man, a 10-year-old girl, a 6-year-old boy, a 4-year-old boy, a 3-year-old girl, and a one-year-old girl. All were described as black.
  • The 1850 Slave Schedule of Scott Co., KY, shows Daniel’s grandson John Harvey Hufford with one slave: a 12-year-old girl.
  • The 1860 Slave Schedule of Woodford Co., KY, shows Daniel’s granddaughter Catherine STONE (Mrs. PAYNE) as holding one slave, a 40-year-old woman, described as black.

That was all shocking to learn, but it is not something that I’ll gloss over or pretend was not so.

Below is a list of Daniel’s descendants, through his grandchildren. It is presented in graphic form rather than text format because the software for this blog does not allow for proper indenting for a descendancy chart:descend-1
descend-2
descend-3
descend-4
descend-5

PAGE NOTE: Daniel Hoffart’s son William David is listed on page 258 of the 1909 HUFFORD FAMILY HISTORY.